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生科院钟伯坚研究组揭示南极嗜冷绿藻基因组水平适应极端环境的分子机制

2020年7月2日,开心飞艇生命科学学院钟伯坚教授研究组联合自然资源部第一海洋研究所等科研单位,对南极海冰生态系统特有的南极衣藻进行了基因组适应性进化研究,为理解南极植物适应极端环境的分子机制提供崭新的思路。相关成果以“Adaptation to Extreme Antarctic Environments Revealed by the Genome of a Sea Ice Green Alga”为题发表于生物学领域顶级期刊开心飞艇《Current Biology》。《Current Biology》是入选自然指数(Nature Index)统计源的全球82本顶级期刊之一,5年综合影响因子为10.17。该文也是开心飞艇首次在该杂志发表论文。

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本研究估算了南极衣藻的分化时间大约为34个百万年,与德雷克海峡开放导致南极极端低温形成的时期一致,推测南极衣藻的起源与南极极端低温的形成有关。研究发现南极衣藻通过水平基因转移的方式获得了冰结合蛋白,该蛋白可以与小的冰晶结合,具有抑制冰结晶和生长的功能。通过进一步的功能实验证实了南极衣藻中的冰结合蛋白具有提高生物抗冻能力的作用。因此,推测冰结合蛋白的获得对南极衣藻避免冰冻损伤和适应海冰中极端低温的环境十分重要。

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南极衣藻基因组中参与低温、高盐和强紫外辐射响应的基因家族发生了显著扩张开心飞艇,相较于其它喜温绿藻具有较多的基因拷贝(如参与不饱和脂肪酸代谢、抗氧化系统、离子稳态和DNA损伤修复等通路的基因),推测可能与对极端环境的适应有关。不同极端环境胁迫下南极衣藻转录组比较分析发现,这些经历扩张的基因在胁迫下呈现显著上调,表明发生扩张的基因同时也能在转录水平积极响应环境胁迫。生理生化分析发现其不饱和脂肪酸含量、抗氧化酶活性及可溶性脯氨酸的含量在胁迫环境下都显著升高,与经历扩张和上调的基因家族所在的通路一致,推测这些与胁迫相关通路的改变是南极衣藻适应南极极端环境的策略。

该研究首次破译了南极嗜冷绿藻的基因组,发现基因组中反转录转座子发生了明显的扩张,可能与南极极端环境的适应有关。通过比较基因组和转录组分析挖掘了南极衣藻适应南极复杂环境的基因与通路,揭示了低等植物适应极端环境的分子机制。该研究成果对于揭示南极嗜冷绿藻基因组的演化历程,深入理解植物对极端环境适应机制提供了重要的理论基础。

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lunwenlianjie: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.029

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